bronze tools, calendar, cultivation of crops, cuneiform writing, domestication of animals, gunpowder, irrigation channels, marble statues, plough, potter's wheel, surgery, telescope, wheeled carts
■ Give students time to read the Key Words and check the meaning and pronunciation in the Mini-dictionary.
■ Students work in pairs or groups, classifying the Key Words into the three headings. Tell students some of the words may belong in more than one category, e.g. wheeled carts may fit in technology and agriculture.
art/culture: calendar, cuneiform writing, marble statues, potter's wheel
technology/medicine: bronze tools, gunpowder, surgery, telescope
agriculture: bronze tools, cultivation of crops, domestication KEY WORDS: Civilisation of animals, irrigation channels, plough, wheeled carts
■ As a class, students discuss which four of the Key Words to use to label the pictures.
A cuneiform writing В marble statue С surgery D wheeled carts
■ Give students time to work individually, reading the Key Words and deciding which three developments they think are the most important for civilisation. Tell students to think about the reasons for their choice.
■ As a whole class, students discuss their choice of three most important developments, giving their reasons. Students can see if there is general agreement about any of the KEY WORDS: Civilisation three developments.
■ Give students time to look at the factfile and see if they can complete any of the information. If some of the students know more than the rest about Mesopotamia, encourage them to tell the others what they know.
О Exercise 4
■ Play the recording two or three times for students to check their guesses in Exercise 3 and complete the factfile.
■ Check answers by asking individuals to write the answers on the board and say them. Check spelling and pronunciation.
1 Iraq 2 Tigris 3 Babylon 4 3,500 5 Persians 6 Alexander
Tapescript See page 149.
О Exercise 5
■ Read through the questions with the class and KEY WORDS: Civilisation check that students understand the vocabulary. Ask students if they can remember any of the answers from listening to the recording in Exercise 4.
■ Play the recording two or three times for students to answer the questions and to think about the most interesting piece of information.
■ Check answers. Then ask students in turn to tell the class what information they found most interesting.
lc 2a 3a 4c 5b 6c
: developed the use of bronze tools, invented the wheel, ::ttery wheel, the plough, cuneiform writing, set up a jystem of money 2 Difficult to compare because the Ancient Egyptians were around longer KEY WORDS: Civilisation. Egyptians tried but T .ed to take over Mesopotamia. Egyptian writing more advanced; medicine with (eye) surgery. Mesopotamia was the "■st place for civilisation to develop.
• 4ead out the instructions and the reasons (a-e). Check that students understand what to do.
■ Ask students to listen the first time and note if each speaker thinks we are civilised or not. Then play the recording again for students to listen for the reasons that each speaker gives.
1 yes - d 2 no - a 3 yes - b 4 no - e 5 yes - с
■ Some of the students can then read out their sentences to the class KEY WORDS: Civilisation.
■ Ask two students to read aloud the example exchange. Students work in pairs, discussing which statements in Exercise 8 they agree with, giving their own reasons and examples. Monitor and make a note of any problems with the language of giving examples and reasons to go over with the class afterwards.
Vocabulary: Multi-part Verbs (10)
■ Advise students to read quickly through all the sentences before they start completing them with the multi-part verbs. Students do the exercise working individually. They can compare answers in pairs before checking answers as a class.
1 establish 2 become larger 3 stop doing something, start KEY WORDS: Civilisation doing something 4 visit 5 get control 6 discover something 7 produce an idea/answer, etc.
■ Students work individually, completing the sentences with multi-part verbs from Exercise 10.
■ Check answers by asking individuals to read aloud the sentences.
1 grew up 2 gave up 3 take up 4 came up with 5 take over 6 set up 7 work out 8 go around
■ It is appropriate to read and discuss the Quote at this stage. Give students time to answer the question raised by the quote in pairs and then as a whole class. Ask students if they can make a similar question with another topic, e.g. weapons KEY WORDS: Civilisation used in war (bows and arrows/swords versus modern weapons).
■ Read through the instructions and the example sentence with the class. Do the next one or two items with the whole class.
■ Students complete the exercise working individually. They can compare answers in pairs before checking answers as a class.
2 For example (example) 3 The reason I think so is (reason) 4 A classic example of this is (example) 5 For that reason (example) 6 Take (example) 7 since (reason) 8 Look at (example) 9 as (reason) 10 a case in point (example)
■ Give students time to read through the exercise and check that they KEY WORDS: Civilisation understand the vocabulary. Do the first sentence with the class, eliciting two or three examples to complete the sentence.
■ Students complete the exercise working individually or in pairs. Monitor, helping where necessary and checking that students have identified correctly whether each sentence needs a reason or an example.
40 Communication Workshops
■ To discuss issues raised in photos.
■ To listen to a presentation and make notes of the main points.
■ To use strategies for a presentation of a topic.
■ To read a description of a place and match topics and paragraphs.
■ To practise writing a description of a place. Resources KEY WORDS: Civilisation used
Cassette/CD, Writing Help 10. Routes through the material
>- Short of time: give some of the writing exercises for homework.
>■ Plenty of time: do the Options.
>• Two classes for this lesson: break after Speaking Talkback.
Before you start Exercise 1
■ Read through the instructions with the class. Tell students to use the photos as a starting-point to lead to other examples relating to the question. Give students time to look at the photos and think about the question.
■ Students discuss the question as a class.
q A Short Presentation of a Topic Exercise 2
■ Give students time to read through the table.
■ Play KEY WORDS: Civilisation the recording once for general understanding. Then play the recording two or three times for students to listen and complete the table.
Advantages: transport, education, communication, computers Disadvantages: war, nuclear weapons Some things are not better, e.g. no cure for cancer or AIDS, there are people in the world without enough food to eat, no progress in the way we behave.
cause lots of pollution. Pollution is a big problem, and ifs countries like the USA, probably the most advanced country, with technology I mean, that causes the most pollution. And I mentioned war. It seems that this is always KEY WORDS: Civilisation a problem, there have always been wars in history, but today, with our new technology, we can make weapons that are more powerful than ever, and thafs really bad, I think. We have nuclear weapons that could destroy the planet, and ifs a very dangerous situation. As I said at the beginning, modern technology has improved a lot of things, but there are still many things it can't do, or things we can't change. For example, scientists can't find a cure for cancer or AIDS, things like that, and there are lots of people KEY WORDS: Civilisation in the world without enough food to eat. So, all things considered, I think modern technology has made life better in some ways, and for some people, but really humans haven't made any real progress, you know, in the way we behave.
О Exercise 3
■ Give students time to read through the notes. Play the recording two or three times for students to listen and complete the notes.
■ Check answers by asking individuals to read aloud the sentences. If students disagree, play the recording for them to listen carefully to the missing word(s).
1 better 2 cure lots of diseases 3 do KEY WORDS: Civilisation basic maths 4 computers 5 pollution 6 destroy the planet 7 cancer or AIDS 8 enough food
■ Students may like to listen to the recording again. Then, as a whole class, students discuss how well they think the girl gave her presentation, giving reasons.
Before you start Exercise 1
■ Students read through the expressions and classify them into the three headings.
■ Check answers and ask individuals to read aloud the expressions.
a 1, 8 b 3, 5, 6, 7 с 2, 4
■ Read through the Strategies with the class. Students may like to hear the recording again to focus on the girl's tone of voice and how she self-corrects.